Jumat, 17 September 2010

Transportation System Today


Place the beginning and end of transport operations
Venue change modes or routes
Facilities maintenance services and transportation means (vehicles & equipment)
Storage, distribution, and loading and unloading goods

Terminal Type:
Train Station
Bus Terminal
Container terminal
Pump station

1. Service Time
The smaller the better.
- Ships = 15% of the time (for winter maintenance)
- The plane flew = 30 - 60 minutes every 2 hours of flying (25-50%)
2. Facilities Provided
Depending on the type of traffic, for example:
- Transportation of goods: vegetables and foods need to place the cooling; liquid ingredients necessary pipes and pumps; bulk mining commodities need to belt motion; containers need cranes.
- Transport of passengers need lifts, toilets, canteen, break rooms, etc..
3. Inspection and Distribution Process
So smoothly, the current arrangements need to be efficient and be broken.
Example: the arrival and departure flow separation, separation place for an introduction and the examination of documents, classification purposes.
1. Need for Integrated Plan
Cases often occur: first character of the local terminal planning & new expanded when needed.
2. Cost
Cost depends on mileage segment, the further the unit costs of increasingly expensive.
Cost depends on volume and number of terminal transportation.
Covers: the cost of unloading, warehouse rental costs, etc..
3. Land Use and Local Conditions
Terminal ideally as close as possible to the source of power trip.
Terminal face parallel to the road, performing at the crossings and congestion.

4. Environmental Impact
Terminal lead pollution: air, water, noise, and visual (waste gas, dust, noise and engine vibration)
Steps to reduce pollution: install anti-noise devices, etc..
1. Land Transportation Terminal
Includes: bus, train, or multi-modal.
2. Water Transport Terminals
Port: a sheltered waters, where ships could dock and load or unload goods safely.
Type of port:
Type of water (natural, semi-natural, artificial)
Purpose (military, fisheries, commerce, recreation)
Location (sea, lake, river)
Auxiliary port facilities:
breaking waves (breakwater), fastening the ship (jetti), anchoring the collision (fenders), cranes, railways, oil pipelines, etc..
3. Air Transport Terminal
The layout depends on:
- Configuration runway
single, parallel, intersecting, and non-intersecting, affect the capacity of aircraft operation.
- Flight operations control system
based on the vision / use instruments
Terminal region includes: the terminal building, aircraft parking area (apron), and aircraft hangars.
Facilities: visitor and passenger waiting rooms, passenger processing space, control tower, etc..

Size apron hanging:
- Size and number of gate position (loading area)
- Aircraft parking configurations (nose in, angled nose in, nose out, angled nose out, parallel)
- Parking system (frontal, open apron, finger system, satellite).
Aircraft parking configuration:
- Nose in & angled nose in.
advantage: the front door of the aircraft near the terminal building and the blast of heat from jet engines do not get into the building
losses: the back door with a remote terminal
- Nose out & angled nose out
Parking system:
- Frontal: simple and economical, limited to a small terminal.
- Satellite: suitable for a lot of aircraft, the cost of expensive.
4. Other Terminal
Examples: pump stations, terminals belt motion.

Definition: Everything that relates to how to use or utilize the transportation system in fulfilling its functions and to serve existing demand.
Network utilization
Determination of the route, schedule, and frequency
Provision of capacity
How to make payment
Criteria to measure performance (level and quality of service)
Characteristics of Transport Services: Services of transport services can not be stored for use at another time.
Determining Basis
1. Service System
2 things that underlie the classification:
types of routes and travel (short distance, intermediate, or distant)
kind of operation / type stops (stop, skip-stop, express)
2. Concept Hierarchy Service
The need to develop transport systems in accordance with regional developments and the needs of the population movement.
Hierarchy of service (on the transport system already complete), aims to further optimize the function of each subsystem or modes.
The principle of hierarchy of service: a smaller transport into the feeder (feeder) to the larger transportation system.
In the urban public transport system:
Public transportation (low capacity) to serve short-range transport and serve the area whose needs are not too large (the edge of town)
Buses serve the transportation is quite far, but the need is not so great
Train (highest capacity) to serve transportation needs in the region is very high.
Route Type
The route is commonly used: radial, circumferensial / loop, tangential.
The length and location of the route:

The location of the origin destination (O-D)
Availability of land
The cost of providing

Determining Basis
Depends on:

Existing demand
The nature of services performed
Type of operation time (day, only during rush hour, or on special events)
Control system of transportation systems

Schedule Type
Schedule and frequency:
Same all the time-
-Distinguished (with no busy rush hour, weekdays and holidays, etc.)
Determining Basis
The principle of payment:

-Uniform (much closer together)
-Based on the distance
Based on the time-
Based on passenger-type

On systems that differentiate the tariff, the tariff is determined by:
Furthermore, the distance traveled, more expensive
-The more often people use the transport at any given time, more and more cheap
Payment Method
- Immediately before boarding the vehicle (manual or automatic)
- Subscriptions
The tariff should consider:
- The purpose of the provision of transport (the social aspect or profit-making)
- Large income users
- The existence of competition from other systems
Parameters / indicators to measure the level of success or performance of the operating system:
1. The level of service, involving quantitative measures.
2. Quality of service, involves a qualitative measure.
 Service Level Factor
1. Capacity
: Number of passengers / goods that can be moved in units of time (person / hour or tons / hour).
For example:
- Passenger capacity in public transport: 4-8 orang/m2
- Ideal capacity road: 1000 - 1200 pcu / lane / hour
- Runway capacity: 25-50 operations per hour
Some ways to increase capacity:
enlarge the size, speed up the movement, tamp passenger / goods.
Restrictions should be noted:
space limitations, safety, comfort, etc..
2. Accessibility
Stating the ease of using a particular transport.
Transportation system should be easily accessible from various places and at all times.
 Service Quality Factors
1. Safety
Associated with control systems used.
2. Reliability
Related to factors such as time schedules and guarantee accuracy reached their destination.
3. Flexibility
Ease of change is in all things as a result of events that changed not in accordance with the planned scenario.
4. Comfort
Associated with the layout of seats, air conditioning system in a vehicle, the existence of special facilities (toilets, dining, operating times, etc)
5. Speed
A very important factor and is associated with problems of transportation system efficiency.
6. Impact
Environmental impacts (pollution, noise, vibration) to the socio-political impact.

Definition: A set of rules / procedures which apply to vehicles & traffic to ensure safe operation and efficient transportation distinguished and prevent conflict.
Objective: Arrange to have the movement that occurred could always be controlled & run safely and efficiently handling, as well as a distinguished performance maximum.
Types of Conflict
- Physical Conflict
For example: the placement of a space inside of the same
- Conflicts of interest
For example: the desire to increase the speed as high as opposite dg businesses reduce accident rate
Elements Involved
• All the elements which form the overall system, the facilities, infrastructure, and human.
• Special Board tutelary:
• Police, DLLAJ, etc..
Basic Principles
• Viewing & views
• Separation Dlm space
• Separation of inside of
Particular juncture, the three ways they will be retrievable & used combined together.
Equipment in use:
rules (written or ill), certain habits, codes or special signals.
Current control system is mostly done through modern communication tools, such as: radio, telephone, satellite, TV, etc..
See & be seen: Dg driver's ability to see a danger and avoid it.
Separation Dlm space: Creating a separation between the spaces to move.
Inside of Separation: Use a space / traffic lane in a non-regulated together / take turns.
Signs & Markup
 The system which is simple enough.
 Represents reply messages to be conveyed KPD driver.
 reply message conveyed in the form of guidelines, restrictions, and information.
Traffic Lights (Traffic Signal)
• System controls at intersections to regulate the driver's turn through the intersection.
• Type:
• fixed time, semi-actuated, fully actuated.
• isolated, coordinated dg another intersection.
The most extensive system, KA always be in control, dg by limiting the degree of freedom and avoid conflicts dg another vehicle.
Type of Control
 Manual / visual (pd control engineer)
 Manual / signal & block system (control & signal pd driver), also called Automatic Train Protection (ATP)
 Automation (semi / full), called the Automatic Train Operation (ATO) / Automatic Train Supervision (ATS) / Central Train Control (CTC)
Control Manual / Visual
Depends on driver vision 
 To KA dg low capacity & speed <70 km / h
Manual Controls / Signal
Using a semaphore / signal lights.
Aspect (position lights / signs & settings) and indication (reply message conveyed) is determined according to certain rules.
3 position base / light color:
vertical / green: clear
45 ยบ / Yellow: approach
horizontal / red: stop
Can be combined dg block signaling system, where the path divided In some blocks
Minimum block length = stopping distance + level of safety
2 KA off-be in the same block
This combination can increase safety & capacity.
Type of signal
 pd lane on the edge of the block
 cheap & simple
Railway control room
barrier is independent weather & views
Automatic Control
Consisting of:
- Semi automatic control
only for the operation, controls up and down the passenger is still done by personnel.
- Fully automatic control
KA unmanned
Regular Schedule
Capacity increase
Energy consumption and spare parts down
Increased safety
Expensive cost
Could cause problems, especially in an emergency, so cut no contact between passengers & crew
Objective: to determine the position and giving information of the danger area.
Control system is equipped dg sometimes sounds / signal whistle.
Navigation Waters
- Seabed depth maps,
to determine the shipping line ships
- Position the signs, lighthouse, etc..
help ships determine the position and warn of the danger zone
Radar (radio direction and ranging)
To control the distance and detect objects.
Principle: the electronic waves emitted by the transmitter which rotates, the wave will bounce when hitting an object and can be shown on the screen.
Radio beacons
Electronic device the most simple & most widely used.
The form of a directional antenna receiver dg.
Radio signal beacons can be received in a short distance - medium to 100 miles.
It consists of 2 categories:
- Control the movement path
The position of the aircraft are monitored by the control station imaginable along the flight path.
- Control of the terminal
At the time of ride down passengers.
The signs that must be followed and are usually required to control the movement path.
These include Automatic Direction Finding (ADF) / Distance Measurement Equipment (DME)
Instrument Landing System (ILS)
Landing system by using tools.
Form of signal / lamp should be followed at the time of landing.
Example: Approach Light System (ALS), Threshold lighting, runway lighting, taxiway lighting, light direction weather vane & landing.

Transportation System Management:
a process that not only improve transportation planning and traffic engineering of traditional, but also focuses on the establishment of a mobility, security, energy conservation, and protection of environmental quality through the application of scientific methods based on the principles of engineering and planning system.
Transportation System Management is a process that involves planning and operation of a unitary system of urban transportation.
Coordinate all travel through the operation of equipment, regulatory, and policy services, so as to achieve an efficiency and productivity of the transport system.
Conservation funding sources, energy, environmental quality and quality of urban life.


Traffic restrictions (traffic restriction)
Traffic Control (traffic restraints)
Fiscal system / financial (fiscal measures)
Incentives (incentives system)
Improved transit service
Provision of facilities for cyclists and pedestrians
Provision / development of paratransit service
Traffic Management (traffic management

 Traffic Restrictions
Prevent vehicle traffic, to not enter, stop or cross the route / area.
Only targeted at certain categories of vehicles.
Closing the road is permanently or temporarily to all vehicle traffic
The implementation of the road pembuntuan
Prohibition of use of roads based on area or time
Restricted parking on the street or the elimination of parking on the street
 Traffic Control
Controlling vehicle traffic by applying a consequence for the use of transportation systems.
Giving users the option of transport to use the system with certain consequences or completely avoid its use.
 Distribution center area into several zones, with the application of one-way street system, and regulation of certain turns, that does not allow travel between the zones or traffic basis.
 Implementation of road pricing, by charging fees to users of the route / area of the solid.
toll road
application of screen-line pricing (charging fees on vehicles passing through the imaginary line that crosses all the existing corridor)
implementation of cordon pricing (charging fees on vehicles passing through the imaginary line around an area to be solid)
application of area licensing (a fee on vehicles entering into certain areas of solid)
 Implementation of parking control (parking control), to limit the total number of vehicles parking in the central area of activity, and to limit the volume of traffic in the city as a whole.
limit the number of parking lots and parking locations
restrictions on duration of use of parking
withdrawal cost of parking by varying levels based on time usage
parking restrictions only to certain road users
 System Fiscal / Financial
Associated with the application of tax to things that are directly related to transportation.
Application of vehicle purchase tax
Vehicle registration tax
Import tax kendaraan
Purchases of fuel tax
 Incentive System
Transport users will get the added benefit directly as a result of the implementation of the system.
 setting working hours in turns and the implementation of flexible work schedules, which will reduce the volume of traffic at rush hour.
 Implementation of policy on the operation of public transport.
 travel expenses that the amount varies according to financial ability of users
 implementation of a flat fare (cost is much closer together)
 the use of subscription cards with unlimited term
 free of charge for use of public transport
 Improved Transit Service
Because of the high cost of design and procurement of new types of transportation modes, the wisdom that is taken is still using conventional public transportation modes but with:
 Special Treatment
ie: giving priority to buses at intersections, the application of a special lane for buses, the implementation of opposing lane exclusively for buses.
 Provision of facilities for the convenience of users
eg: provision of facilities within the public transportation (air conditioning, telephone, newspapers & magazines, toilet), the provision of bus stops with completeness, the procurement of transit terminals, provision of facilities 'park & ride'
 Improved transport kapasaitas, using high capacity buses
 Provision of facilities for bicycle riders and Pedestrian
Provision of facilities for pedestrians (such as a special lane for pedestrians and pedestrian malls) will increase the flow and safety of pedestrians.
Special lane for bicycles will make no disruption to traffic wear bicycle, so that will improve safety for riders.

 Provision / Development Paratransit Service
Paratransit is like transit because the service is offered to the public, while the equation with a private vehicle because its operation is based on demand (do not have fixed routes and schedules)
 Implementation: car-pooling, van-pooling
 provision: taxi, dial-a-ride buses, bajaj, bemo, rickshaws, shared-ride taxis.
 Traffic Management
To improve traffic conditions and improve the efficiency of road section, so as to avoid the need for road expansion.
 traffic control, by the application of signal coordination, pavement marking, traffic control lights and perlampuan roads, will increase the security and the smooth movement of traffic on road networks.
 Setup traffic flow, to increase road capacity, especially during busy periods, without widening the road. Example: setting one-way street, the application path to change direction, the rules in turn, and specialism route to certain types of modes.
 Development of a minor on the road system, by canalization, widening the road and intersection design.

Assessment and Evaluation of Transportation System
Or research activities conducted in a thorough assessment of various aspects in an attempt to determine the feasibility of a proposed alternative transportation.
Results of assessment and evaluation:
recommendations on whether or not a proposal for further action
 The process of determining / selecting proposals / alternatives to be implemented.
 Determining the scheme or to recommend a suitable policy to be implemented.
 To produce the basic specifications of a proposed plan appropriate follow-up.
 To determine more precisely the level of feasibility of any alternative proposals from various aspects of the scheme under consideration, so that the determination / selection of the selected proposals will be more objective.
Type Evaluation
1. Evaluation of pre-implementation
Evaluation is conducted prior to the implementation stage of a proposed transportation system.
Purpose: To compare the performance of several proposed alternative transportation systems to be applied.
2. Evaluation of post-implementation
Is an evaluation conducted after the implementation phase of a proposed transportation system.
Purpose: To measure the performance of the transportation system that is applied whether they meet the criteria adopted goals and objectives.
Implementation feasibility evaluation applied to:
 Provision of new facilities
 Improving the existing conditions of transportation facilities
Evaluation Method
Several methods are commonly used:
 Policy Experts
 Ranking
 Economy
 Costs
1. Expert Wisdom Approach Method
Basic: Weighting subjectively by an expert on the impact of component (positive & negative).
Advantages: Requires less time and cost.
Weaknesses: the subjectivity of the dominant factor, thus greatly influenced the quality evaluation expert capabilities.
2. Ranking Approach Method
Basic: Weighting of the various impacts on a scale of ranking each criterion of quality performance.
Advantages: Being able to measure some components of the impact of different units
(Eg: the impact of the reduction of travel time, number of accidents, and increased land value due to the construction of a new road)
 In determining the value of each component
 In determining the comparative value of inter-component impact
3. Economic Evaluation Methods
Basic: Quantifying the impact of all components into the unit value of money or monetary amount.
Advantages: measurability of the performance of alternative transportation systems in quantitative monetary value
 In determining the value of some of the impact of conversion into money value
 The value of currency fluctuations that will affect the accuracy of evaluation
4. Method Cost Effectiveness
Development of economic evaluation methods by adding some criteria of the study "community effectiveness value" based on the level of an alternative utility to the community's wishes

Advantages: Able to measure the impact of a comprehensive alternative transportation system
Weaknesses: P erlu amount of data and cost is very large, long time, the conversion factor that will affect the quality evaluation

Technical Aspects
Socio-cultural aspects
Environmental Aspects
Financial Aspects
Economic aspects
Managerial and administrative aspects
Organizational aspects
Institutional Aspects

1. Review of Technical Aspects
The study:
whether the proposed alternative transportation is quite reliable, safe, and technically reliable.
Technical aspects are reviewed:
engineering aspects, operational aspects, and aspects of care.
Coverage of technical assessment:

Type the appropriate technology
Dimension, scale and shape
The location, configuration, and layout
Processes and procedures used
The level of effectiveness and efficiency
Level of durability and reliability

2. Social Aspects of Cultural Studies
Coverage of socio-cultural aspects of assessment:
 socio-cultural impacts of proposed activities on society and individuals involved in it
 socio-cultural impacts on the surrounding environment
 Recommendations on transportation alternative proposal can be diimlementasikan on socio-cultural conditions that exist today
 Anticipate what to do if the proposed alternative transportation will be implemented

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